Doctors often combine more than one therapy to treat prostate cancer, such as:
- Active surveillance – For men who do not undergo surgery, doctors may increase monitoring through more frequent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal exams and biopsies.
- Chemotherapy – Anti-cancer medications can be used when the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland.
- Cryosurgery – Also called cryotherapy or cryoablation, this technique is sometimes used to treat localized prostate cancer by freezing diseased tissue.
- Hormone therapy – Lowering the levels of male hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can make prostate cancers shrink or grow more slowly.
- Radiation therapy – Doctors may utilize external-beam or internal methods, including brachytherapy.
- Robotic surgery – Surgeons can remove the prostate using the minimally invasive da Vinci® Si™ surgical system, which offers less pain and scarring, and a quicker recovery than open surgery or laparoscopic techniques. Many men return to their normal activities within a few days.